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This is a diagramatical cross-section of the trachea. It consists of a mucosa, submucosa, cartiage layer, and adventitia. The inner mucosa consists of respiratory epithelium (pseudostratified ciliated columnar with goblet cells) and a lamina propria of loose connective tissue. The submucosa consists of a denser connective tissue containing seromucous glands that open onto the mucosal surface by means of a duct. External to the submucosa is a C-shaped hyaline cartilage. Posterior to the hyaline cartilage and spanning the open end of the cartilage is a small band of smooth muscle cells, the trachealis muscle. Outermost, the adventitia consists of a dense connective tissue. The adventitia binds the trachea to other structures (e.g. esophagus),